France's social security scheme for self-employed workers


The Social Security Financing Law for 2018 eliminated the Régime Social des Indépendants (RSI) and these workers' compulsory Social Security coverage is now provided by the general scheme. However, as described by this document, there are specific provisions which apply to self-employed workers.

I. Organisation

The 2-year transition period that followed the elimination of the RSI ended in early 2020, placing self-employed workers under the general scheme.

The various responsibilities of the Social Security scheme for self-employed workers have now been transferred to the 3 branches of the general scheme. Self-employed workers (craftspeople, traders, manufacturers and unregulated private-practice professions established since 2019) are now governed by:

For family benefits, they may continue to contact the CAF (family benefit funds).

* In Mayotte, the general Social Security scheme is managed by the CSSM.

Coverage is provided to regulated private-practice professionals by the same organisations, except for old-age and disability-death insurance which is managed by the career-specific chapters of the CNAVPL (the private-practice professionals' old-age insurance fund) or by the CNBF (the French Bars' national fund). A distinction is made between private-practice professions to which specific regulations apply (e.g. architects, lawyers, doctors, midwives, notaries, etc.) and unregulated private-practice professions (all others).

Lastly, unregulated private-practice professionals having started working prior to 2019, and who are therefore still covered by CIPAV (one of the career-specific chapters of CNAVPL) may exercise the right to opt for their old-age and disability-death cover to also be provided by the organizations in charge of the general scheme. This right of option, which can be exercised until 31 December 2023, is effective as of 1st January following the request.

The following are compulsory members of the general scheme as self-employed workers, even if they are also in salaried employment (in which case, they are considered as having multiple employments under the general scheme):

Voluntary coverage for old-age, disability and death insurance is possible, notably for former compulsory members or contributing spouses, or for persons assisting the company manager in performing his/her duties without being paid and without membership in a compulsory social security scheme. Learn more.

II. Contributions


Urssaf (CGSS in France's overseas departments) collects all compulsory social security contributions from craftspeople and shopkeepers, as well as unregulated private-practice professionals (not covered by CIPAV):

For other members of private-practice professions (regulated private-practice professions or those covered by CIPAV), Urssaf collects all contributions except for old-age (basic and supplementary) and disability-death. These latter contributions must be paid to one of the 10 career-specific chapters coordinated by CNAVPL (the private-practice professionals' old-age insurance fund), or CNBF (the French Bars' national fund) for lawyers (rates vary by profession).

Once the member's self-employment/ business has been registered with Business formalities Center ("Centre de formalités des entreprises"/ CFE), contributions become due to URSSAF from the date of registration and must be paid electronically (checks are not accepted).

The “Déclaration sociale des indépendants” (DSI) was eliminated in 2021. Social contributions and income tax are now calculated based on a single declaration made on the website (“déclaration sociale et fiscale de revenus”, DSFU). The Social Security Financing Law for 2022 introduced the monthly declaration of income, enabling self-employed workers who wish to do so to pay provisional contributions directly indexed based on their current income and not on the income of the previous year.

NB: Those under the “micro-entrepreneur” status are not required to submit the single income declaration. Instead, they must continue to submit their declaration and payment on a monthly or quarterly basis via

How contributions are calculated

Urssaf brochure Comprendre mes cotisations en ligne (“Understanding online contributions”)

Self-employed workers' social security contributions are calculated based on their self-employed, non-agricultural earnings that are taken into account for their income tax calculation (with a few exceptions: please refer to Urssaf's website).

The income that serves as the basis for calculating your contributions is determined by the tax system to which your company belongs. This in turn is determined by the company's legal setup (SARL, EURL, micro-business, etc.).

NB: Self-employed workers do not pay unemployment insurance contributions. However, they can choose to take out a job-loss insurance contract (or unemployment coverage) from a private insurance company. In addition, as of November 2019, workers who close their business due to court-ordered liquidation or administration proceedings may qualify for the self-employed workers' benefit (allocation des travailleurs indépendants / ATI).

Standard ongoing contributions

Pass: yearly social security ceiling (€41,136 in 2022).

Craftsmen. shopkeepers. unregulated private-practice professionals
Contribution Base Rate
Health-maternity (health 1) Total earned income 0 to 6.5%
Daily health benefits (health 2) Income up to €205.680 (5 times the Pass) 0.85%
Disability-death Income up to €41.136 (1 times the Pass) 1.3%
Basic retirement pension Income up to €41.136 (1 Pass) 17.75%
Income above 41,136 € (1 Pass) 0.6%
Supplementary retirement pension Income up to €38,916* 7%
Income between €38,916* and €164,544 (4 times the Pass) 8%
Unregulated private-practice professions
Right to opt for specific rates for the calculation of supplementary pension contributions
Income < 1 Pass 0%
Income between 1 Pass and 4 times the Pass 14%
Family benefits Earned income below €45,250 (110% of the Pass) 0%
Income between €45,250 and €57,590 (110% and 140% of the Pass) 0 à 3.1%
Earned income above €57,590 (140% of the Pass) 3.1%
CSG-CRDS Earned income + compulsory social security contributions 9.7%
Replacement income 6.7%
Professional training Craftsman flat basis: €41,136 0.29%
Shopkeeper or private-practice professional
flat basis: €41,136
Shopkeeper or private-practice professional + contributing spouse flat basis: €41,136 0.34%
* Specific ceiling for the self-employed workers' supplementary scheme (PRCI).
Regulated private-practice professions
Contribution Base Rate
Health-maternity Earned income below €45,250 (110% of the Pass) 1.5 to 6.5%
Earned income above €45,250 6.5%
Daily benefits
(except lawyers)
Income up to 3 Pass (€123,408)
Minimum base: 40% of Pass
Family benefits Earned income below €45,250 0%
Income between €45,250 and €57,590 (110% and 140% of the Pass) 0 to 3.1%
Earned income above €57,590 3.1%
Basic retirement pension CNAVPL Income up to 1 Pass (€41,136) 8.23%
Income up to 5 Pass (€205,680) 1.87%
Supplementary retirement pension Variable according to business (chapters of the CNAVPL)
Disability-death Variable according to business (chapters of the CNAVPL)
CSG – CRDS Earned income + compulsory social security contributions 9.7%
Replacement income 6.7%
Professional training 1 Pass (€41,136) 0.25%
Private-practice professional + contributing spouse On the basis of 1 Pass (€41,136) 0.34 %

Start of business (1st and 2nd year)

Since annual earned income is unknown, contributions are calculated based on flat amounts (provisional calculation, recalculated after income is declared).

1st year of business - Acre exemption (aid for unemployed individuals setting up or taking over a business): At the start of business, self-employed workers may be exempt from contributions (health, disability/death, basic pension and family benefits) for 12 months.

Acre may only be granted to those who have not already benefitted from this scheme for another business in the last 3 years. If self-employment takes the form of a company, the beneficiary must have effective control over said company.

Yearly income Type of exemption
Below €30,852 Total exemption from such contributions
Between €30,852 and €41,136 Partial and degressive exemption
Above €41,136 No exemption

Contributions from which the member is not exempted are calculated based on a flat amount (this amount prorated based on the date when the member began work):

Contribution Base  Amount/year
Supplementary retirement pension (excluding regulated private-practice professions) €7,816 €547
CSG-CRDS  €7,816 €758
Professional training (Professional training leave: CFP) €41,136 €103/119/140*
* €103 for shopkeepers and unregulated private-practice professionals, €119 for craftsmen, €140 for shopkeepers and private-practice professionals with a contributing spouse..

During the member's 2nd year of work (in 2023), the member will need to pay provisional contributions, which are calculated on a flat-amount basis, until they have filed their tax declaration for 2022. Rates are provided with the contribution payment schedule. These rates apply as from the 1st year of business for workers not eligible for the Acre scheme:  

Line of work Contribution Base Amount/year
Self-employment (craftsmen, shopkeepers, unregulated private-practice professionals) Health 1 €16,454 €522
Health 2  €16,454 €140
Family benefits €7,816 €0
CSG-CRDS  €758
Disability-death €102
Basic retirement pension €1,387
Supplementary retirement pension €547
Professional training €41,136  €103, €119 or €140
Regulated private-practice profession Health-maternity €7,816  €184
Family benefits €0
CSG-CRDS  €758
Basic retirement pension €7,816 €789
Professional training €41,136 €103

Minimum contributions

A worker whose earned income is negative or under the minimum base must pay minimum contributions, even if he/she is also in salaried employment or receives a pension.

There is no minimum health-maternity insurance, family benefits, or CSG-CRDS base. Rather, these contributions are calculated based on actual earned income. Beneficiaries of the active solidarity allowance (RSA) or the employment bonus (“prime d'activité”) pay contributions on the basis of their actual income.

They can also apply to pay minimum contributions in order to increase their entitlements.

Craftsmen, shopkeepers and unregulated private-practice professions
Contribution Amount/year
Health 2 (Daily benefits)  €140 (= 0.85% of €16,454)
Disability-death  €62 (= 1.30% of €4,731)
Basic retirement pension €8401 (= 17.75% of €4,731)
Professional training
- shopkeeper or private-practice professional2
- craftsman
€103 (= 0.25% of €41,136)
 €119 (= 0.29% of €41,136)

1. This minimum contribution allows workers to acquire 3 quarters for the given year. The annual income required to acquire 4 quarters is €6,432, or 600 SMIC (minimum wage) hours.
2. For a shopkeeper or private-practice professional and his/her contributing spouse, the annual contribution is €140 (0.34% of €41,136).

Contributions paid by "auto-entrepreneurs"

A business can be created under “auto-entrepreneur” status online at

An “auto-entreprise” is an individual undertaking that comes under the special tax system for “micro-entreprises” and under the “micro-social” scheme for the payment of social security contributions.

It can be created for a crafts, trading or private-practice line of work. However, some regulated private-practice professions cannot be practiced under this status.

Yearly turnover must not exceed:

These thresholds apply to a full business year, and are prorated for all those starting work mid-year.

"Auto-entrepreneur" status offers a simplified system for the calculation and payment of compulsory social security contributions.

Each month or each quarter, whichever the member has chosen, they will need to calculate and pay all of their social security contributions:

The "forfait social" (corporate social contribution) includes all contributions related to compulsory social security coverage:

This is increased by a professional training contribution: 0.10% (shopkeepers), 0.20% (private-practice professions) or 0.30% (craftsmen) of turnover.

NB: Those with "auto-entrepreneur" status who meet certain conditions may benefit from a 50% reduction of their contributions* as part of the aid for unemployed individuals setting up or taking over a business (Acre). This reduced rate applies until the end of the 3rd calendar quarter following the date they started business.

* The contributions paid by private-practice professions managed by CIPAV are reduced from 22.20% to 12.10%.

III. Health-maternity insurance

A. Health care

France's universal health care system ("Protection universelle maladie"/ Puma) covers all persons working in France (as from the date they started working) or residing in France on a stable and ongoing basis. Workers' adult family members (spouse and/or children)are insured in their own right.

Self-employed workers' health care expenses are covered under the same conditions and using the same reimbursement rates that apply to salaried workers under the general scheme.

Health care is reimbursed by the health insurance fund (CPAM) of the self-employed worker's place of residence.

NB: The rates below apply to statutory fees, meaning with no surcharge (sector 1).

Care and treatments Coverage by the French Social Security system
Doctor's fees (within the coordinated healthcare pathway through your primary-care physician ("médecin traitant”))* 70 %
Doctor's fees outside the coordinated healthcare pathway 30 %
Licensed health workers' fees 60 %
Medical analyses 60% (70% for some medical services)
Medical imaging (radiology, ultrasound, MRI) 70 %
Pharmaceuticals 100%, 65%, 30%, or 15% depending on the recognized "medical service rendered"
Care and hospitalizations in connection with an exempting long-term illness 100 %
Hospital stays
- from the 31st consecutive day
80 %
100 %
Hospital stays that include an extensive procedure with a fee of 120 € or more 100 %
 €24 will be deducted from your reimbursement

* If you declare a primary-care physician ("médecin traitant"), you will be reimbursed at a higher rate. The French Social Security scheme reimburses 70% of a €25 doctor's appointment, or €16.50, if you have a primary-care physician, versus €6.50 if you do not (these amounts take account of a €1 deduction for the flat out-of-pocket charge applicable to all medical consultations).

All patients are required to pay a €1 flat out-of-pocket charge for a doctor's appointment or laboratory test (not exceeding €4 per practitioner or laboratory per day). There is also a €0.50 flat charge per paramedical procedure and prescribed item of medicine, and a €2 charge for medical transportation (excluding emergency transportation arranged by the emergency response service Samu). Such charges may not exceed €50 per year; moreover, they are capped at €2 per day for paramedical procedures and €4 per day for medical transport. Patients under the age of 18 and pregnant women (receiving care covered by maternity insurance from the 6th month of pregnancy up to 12 days after delivery) are exempted from all of these out-of-pocket charges.

The €1 flat out-of-pocket charge does not apply to consultations with a dental surgeon. Learn more about reimbursements for dental care.

If you are hospitalized, you will be charged a €20 out-of-pocket daily fee (the daily fee is €15 for psychiatric admissions). While this fee is not reimbursed by the Social Security system, it can be covered by certain mutual funds or supplementary health insurance providers. Some patients are exempted from this fee.

Emergency patient flat fee: as of 1st January 2022, visits to the emergency room that do not result in hospitalization are charged at a rate of €19.61.

A reduced emergency patient flat fee (€8.49) is charged to individuals with a long-term illness and those who receive benefits for an industrial accident or occupational illness with a disability rating of less than two thirds.

The emergency patient flat fee is not charged to:

The emergency patient flat fee can be reimbursed by supplementary health insurance providers.

B. Daily medical leave benefits

In case of leave for medical reasons, daily benefits may be paid to craftsmen, shopkeepers, manufacturers and members of unregulated private-practice professions under the general scheme, for all risks.

Since July 2021, members of other private-practice professions (except lawyers who are covered by a separate scheme) may also benefit from daily benefits paid by their local CPAM. These benefits are granted for leave of less than 3 months. For leave exceeding 90 days, compensation may be provided by the relevant retirement fund under the disability scheme; however, not all private-practice professions are eligible.

1.Eligibility requirements

The right to daily medical leave benefits is only granted after 12 months of uninterrupted membership for the current professional activity carried out. If you were previously a member of another compulsory health insurance scheme through previous employment, your period of membership in that scheme can be taken into account provided that you transitioned directly from one scheme to the other with no break in coverage.

The worker must be temporarily unable to continue or return to their work, provide a medical certificate attesting to said inability (medical leave) and have stopped working.

When the medical leave prescription is not directly established online by your primary-care physician, pages 1 and 2 of the paper form must be sent to the medical department of the CPAM to which you belong within 48 hours.

2. Amount

Daily benefits are paid at a rate of 1/730th of your average yearly earned income over the past 3 calendar years, up to a maximum of the annual Social Security ceiling (€41,136 in 2022). Thus, €56.35 gross is the maximum daily benefit you may receive. When the income considered is below €4,093.20, the amount of daily benefits is zero. In this case, the CPAM may paid a daily benefit by maintaining entitlements from previous employment.

Regulated (and unregulated Cipav) private-practice professions: The calculation applied is the same as for other self-employed workers, but income is considered within the limit of 3 times the annual Social Security ceiling. As a result, daily benefits are capped at €169.05 gross.

3. Length of entitlement

Daily benefits are paid as from the 4th day of leave. When several medical leave periods are prescribed for a long-time illness, the 3-day waiting period only applies once every 3 years.

Like employees under the general scheme, a self-employed worker is eligible for 360 days of benefits over a period of 3 years (90 days for medically prescribed part-time employment). In the event of a long-term illness, you will be eligible to receive daily benefits for up to 3 years (270 days for medically prescribed part-time employment) provided that the leave was medically justified.

On average, daily medical leave benefits are paid every 14 days.

Regulated (and unregulated Cipav) private-practice professions: The same provisions apply as regards waiting periods and maximum lengths of entitlement per reference period; However, payment of daily benefits by the CPAM is limited to 87 consecutive days per medical leave. For longer medical leave, some retirement funds grant disability insurance benefits as from the 91st day of leave. Eligibility requirements and the amounts paid depend on the career-specific chapter concerned (CARPIMKO, Cavec, CARMF, CARCDSF).

C. Maternity – paternity

1. Healthcare during pregnancy

To benefit from specific cover as soon as possible, you must declare your pregnancy (examination by a physician or midwide) before the end of the 3rd month of pregnancy. Insureds are subsequently exempted from advancing medical expenses (third-party payment scheme).

During the 5 first months, ultrasounds are covered at a rate of 70% and other pregnancy-related compulsory examinations are covered at a rate of 100% (excluding surcharge fees). As from the 6th month of pregnancy, and up until 12 days after delivery, all reimbursable health expenses are covered at a rate of 100%, within the limit of rates applied by the health insurance fund. During this period, pregnant women are also exempt from paying medical out-of-pocket fees usually applicable to medical consultations, pharmaceuticals, paramedical services and healthcare transport, as well as hospital fees and the €24 out-of-pocket charge for extensive procedures.

For visits to the emergency room, pregnant women with maternity insurance are not required to pay the emergency patient flat fee.

2. Maternity of adoption leave

Pregnancy: Self-employed insureds who completely stop working for at least 8 weeks (including 6 weeks after delivery) may receive a lump-sum mothers' rest benefit (“allocation forfaitaire de repos maternel”) and lump-sum daily benefits.

Adoption: One of the parents may receive a lump-sum mothers' rest benefit. If both parents meet the eligibility requirements, they may share the adoption leave and any related benefits.

They must demonstrate 10 months of cover on the presumed date of delivery or adoption.

The lump-sum mothers' rest benefit may be paid to a contributing spouse if said spouse is a member of the scheme as a self-employed worker. Daily benefits are replaced by a replacement benefit.

The lump-sum mothers' rest benefit ("allocation forfaitaire de repos maternel")

The full amount is €3,428, paid in 2 instalments:

When the birth takes place before the end of the 7th month of pregnancy, the entire amount is paid following delivery.

For adoptions, the amount of €1,714 is awarded when the child joins the household.

NB: For individuals whose annual earned income over the last 3 years is less than 10% of the Pass for said 3 years (average of annual values), the benefit is reduced to €342.80 (pregnancy) or €171.40 (adoption).

The lump-sum daily benefit for time off work

For a 1st or 2nd child, maternity leave may be granted for 16 weeks (6 weeks prior to delivery and 10 weeks after). During this period, the daily benefits paid by the CPAM amount to €56.35 per day. This amount is reduced by 90% for professionals whose average income over the last 3 years is low. Where applicable, daily benefits may be paid at the full rate by maintaining entitlements from previous employment.

For a 3rd child, maternity leave may be extended for an additional 10 weeks (26 weeks). A woman pregnant with twins or at least 3 children may benefit from 34 or 46 weeks of paid leave respectively.

For an adoption (1 child), the maximum length of entitlement is 87 days (12 weeks and 3 days).

Contributing spouse: In lieu of lump-sum daily benefits, you may receive a replacement benefit for maternity/adoption leave equal to the cost of substitution by a salaried employee, within the limit of €57.25 per day.

3. Paternity leave

Company directors are eligible for paternity leave with benefits paid by the CPAM. Those with contributing spouse (“conjoint collaborateur”) status can be awarded a benefit that is intended to pay an employee as a substitute during this period of leave. In all cases, the applicant must have been a member of the scheme for 10 months.

Company director: the lump-sum daily benefit amounts to €56.35 per day (only 10% of this amount for self-employed workers whose average annual income over the last 3 years is less than 10% of the average Pass over the same period).

The daily benefit can be paid for:

The rest of the leave is optional (either 18 or 25 consecutive or non-consecutive days, which must be taken within 6 months of the child's birth or arrival within the family).

Contribution spouse: replacement benefit corresponding to the actual cost of a substitute, not exceeding €57.25 per day.

IV. Family benefits

Self-employed workers are entitled to family benefits paid by Family Benefits Fund (Caisse d'Allocations Familiales/ CAF) under the same conditions as salaried workers:

Family benefits as such are awarded as from the 2nd dependent child.

Their amounts are paid at a rate that varies based on household income. Many of these benefits are means-tested.

V. Industrial accidents and occupational illnesses (optional)

Unlike salaried workers, self-employed workers are not covered on a compulsory basis by the industrial accidents and occupational illnesses branch. However, they can choose to take out voluntary coverage through their local health insurance fund (CPAM). Voluntary coverage does not entitle the self-employed worker to daily benefits (temporary disability), but does entitle them to benefits for permanent disability and in case of death (funeral allowance and pensions to legal beneficiaries). It also provides better financial coverage of health expenses (reimbursement at a rate of 100% or 150% of regulated prices for prostheses). For further information The Health Insurance Fund's website offers advice and links to prevent occupational risks as a self-employed worker.

VI. Old age

To learn more, please refer to the retirement fund's website. The following information is also applicable to members of unregulated private-practice professions, except those covered by the CIPAV.

To learn about the specificities of regulated private-practice professions, please visit the CNAVPL's website.

A. Statutory retirement age and age of full-rate pension entitlement

For those born in 1955 or after, the statutory retirement age is 62 years old and the age of full-rate pension entitlement (regardless of the length of cover) is 67 years old.

B. Early retirement

1. Early retirement on the basis of a long career

If you retire early on the basis of a long career, you will be able to claim your basic pension at the full rate before reaching the statutory retirement age.

Only periods during which you have contributed will be taken into account, with a maximum of 4 quarters per year. Any quarters “deemed to have been contributed towards” (national service, unemployment, receipt of a disability pension or daily benefits) are included.

Early retirement before age 60

Members who began working before age 16 are eligible for early retirement before age 60 if they:

Early retirement at age 60 and up

As from age 60, members who began working before age 20 may claim their old-age pension if they:

2. Early retirement due to disability

Members with a disability can retire early starting at age 55 if they:

Required lengths of insurance and contributions vary based on birth year and age at retirement. Only 4 quarters may be accrued per year of insurance or contribution.

Early retirement due to disability - 2022
Birth Retirement age Total length of insurance Length of contributions
1961 61 years 88 quarters 68 quarters
1962 60 years 88 quarters 68 quarters
1963 59 years 88 quarters 68 quarters
1964 58 years 99 quarters 79 quarters
1965 57 years 109 quarters 89 quarters
1966 56 years 119 quarters 99 quarters
1967 55 years 130 quarters 110 quarters

The length of insurance (total length of insurance) is comprised of periods during with contributions were paid and assimilated period or those recognised as equivalent (for which there was no actual payment of contributions by the member) due to military service, periods of war or medical leave, periods on disability or unemployment benefits, child-related insurance length increases, etc.

The length of contributions takes account of periods of insurance for which the member paid compulsory or voluntary contributions, those that were purchased (not including "Fillon purchases"), or those for which outstanding contributions were paid at a later date.

C. Basic retirement pension calculation

How retirement pensions are calculated varies based on the period of insurance in question:

How the basic retirement pension is calculated

Average yearly income1 X rate2 X length of insurance3 / reference length4

1 - Your average yearly income is the average of your income from your 25 best earning years, within the upper limit of the social security ceiling (Pass - €41,136 in 2022).

For members born before 1953, the number of years taken into account varies based on the year of birth (from 10 to 25).

2 - Rate:

The maximum rate of 50% (full rate) applies to members who:

The following are considered:

Insurance length increase for children:

* These two increases can be awarded either to the mother alone, to the father alone, or to both parents. The rules for how they are divided depend on whether the child was born/ adopted before or after January 1st, 2010. To learn more, please refer to the retirement fund's website.

Rate reduction: If the member stops working before age 67 without meeting the requirements for a full-rate pension, the rate used to calculate the retirement pension is reduced. The reduction applied amounts to 1.25% (= rate reduced by 0.625) per missing quarter, within the limit of 20 quarters (a rate of 37.5% instead of 50%).

If the years during which contributions have been paid since 1973 are eligible for a rate reduction, the retirement pension calculated for the period worked prior to 1973 is also reduced.

3 - The length of insurance is the number of quarters accrued since 1973 as a self-employed worker.

4 - The reference length is the length of insurance required for a full-rate pension based on the member's birth year.

Birth year Required number of quarters for a full-rate pension
1950 162
1951 163
1952 164
1953 - 1954 165
1955 - 1957 166
1958 - 1960 167
1961 - 1963 168
1964 - 1966 169
1967 - 1969 170
1970 - 1972 171
1973 onwards 172

D. Pension rate increases

E. The supplementary pension scheme

The supplementary pension scheme for self-employed workers is a points-based system.

For every year of work, the number of points for contributions is calculated by dividing supplementary pension contributions paid by the reference income for that year (purchase value of a supplementary pension point). As of January 1st, 2022, the reference income amounts to €17.956 €.

These points for contributions are increased by free points granted to those with a disability pension or an incapacity to work (exempt from supplementary pension contributions) and are calculated differently based on the contributions paid by the member prior to receiving a disability pension.

When you retire, the number of points accrued is multiplied by the value of the point. In 2022, the value of the supplementary pension point amounts to €1.221 (€1.146 for a compulsory supplementary scheme (RCO) point paid by a craftsman between 1979 and 1996).

The supplementary retirement pension is paid in full if the pensioner has been awarded a basic pension at the full rate (50%). It is reduced if the basic pension is calculated at a reduced rate.

* The self-employed workers' supplementary scheme (“régime complémentaire des indépendants”/ RCI) was created in 2013 from the merge of the compulsory supplementary scheme (“régime complémentaire obligatoire”/ RCO) and the shopkeepers' supplementary scheme (“régime complémentaire des commerçants”/ NRCO).

Retirement pensions are liable to compulsory social security deductions, depending on the pensioner's reference tax income ("revenu fiscal de référence") and number of shares. They will be either completely exempt, or liable to the following rates:

  • CSG (generalized social contributions): 8.3%, 6.6% or 3.8% based on tax bracket
  • CRDS (social security debt reimbursement contribution): 0.5%
  • CASA (additional solidarity and autonomy contribution): 0.3%

Pensioners whose tax residence is not in France are not subject to CSG-CRDS contributions but pay a specific health insurance contribution (7.10%).

F. The minimum pension and elderly solidarity allowance (“Allocation de solidarité aux personnes âgées”/ ASPA)

If the member has a low pension, their basic retirement pension may be increased to the minimum amount known as the “minimum contributif”.

Regardless of their contributions career, an elderly person whose income is below the threshold provided for by law may benefit from the Elderly solidarity allowance to complete their income.

VII. Disability

For private-practice professionals who are members of a career-specific chapter of the CNAVPL or of the CNBF, disability benefits are paid by the relevant retirement fund.

For other self-employed workers, disability insurance is divided into 2 pensions: a pension for partial inability to work and a pension for total and permanent disability. The beneficiary of a pension for total and permanent disability may benefit from a pension increase if they require the assistance of a caregiver on a daily basis.

A. Eligibility requirements

The pension for partial inability to work and the pension for total and permanent disability are awarded on request, after an examination carried out by the medical advisor of the relevant health insurance fund.

The applicant must:

Members who are not receiving daily benefits on the date of their request must have been members of the scheme for at least 12 months and have contributed during the 3 calendar years prior to the date on which the pension is paid for an average income equal to or exceedings 10% of the annual average of Social Security ceilings for the same period.

B. Amounts

The disability pension is calculated based on the average income on which contributions were paid over the member's 10 best years of employment (average annual income).

Pension for partial inability to work: Awarded when the member may still continue their work. The annual pension amounts to 30% of the member's average yearly income. It is capped at €1,028.40 per month (i.e., 30% of the 2022 Pass). As of April 1st, 2022, the minimum amount is €468.25.

Pension for total and permanent disability: If the disability limits access to employment in a significant and ongoing manner, the member is medically recognized as having a total and permanent disability. The annual pension amounts to 50% of the member's average yearly income,but cannot exceed 50% of the Pass in force (€1,714 per month). As of April 1st, 2022, the minimum amount is €659.70.

C. Pension top-ups

The caregiving increase ("Majoration pour tierce personne”/ MTP):

If you are receiving a pension for a total and permanent disability and require ongoing help from a caregiver to perform the ordinary activities of daily living (getting up, going to bed, getting dressed, moving, eating), you may be eligible for a pension top-up of €1,146.69 per month (April 2022).

Supplementary disability allowance (“Allocation supplémentaire d'invalidité”/ ASI)

ASI is awarded under residency conditions to those with an inability to work or earn representing at least 2/3 and whose income is below the amount of the ASI (differential allowance).

The maximum amount of the ASI is €814.40 per month for a single person. When the both members of a couple are beneficiaries, this allowance amounts to a maximum of €1,425.20 per month (shared between the couple). If only one member of the couple is eligible for ASI, the amount received is capped at €517.20 per month. These amounts are applicable as from April 1st, 2022.

E. Payment

The pension for partial inability to work may be combined with a professional income when the sum of both does not exceed 4 times the amount of the pension (exceedance assessed over 2 consecutive quarters). The pension for total and permanent disability may also be paid in conjunction with the continuance or return to a professional activity, provided that the total amount received does not exceed 2.4 times the amount of the pension.

Any change to the member's state of health may cause the pension to be revised (withdrawal, temporary suspension, change to disability category).

These benefits are awarded up until the member reaches statutory retirement age or until an early old-age pension is awarded. However, when the member is working, the pension for inability or disability may be paid until he/she reaches the age of full-rate pension entitlement (67 years old).

VIII. Widow's benefits – The death payment ("Capital décès")

Upon the death of a self-employed worker under the general scheme, his/her spouse may, on the basis of a means-test, benefit from a survivor's pension (basic retirement pension and supplementary pension). A death payment may be paid to beneficiaries.

The specificities applicable to members of regulated private-practice professions and those covered by the Cipav are managed by their retirement fund.

A. The survivor's pension from the basic scheme

The survivor's pension awarded to the surviving spouse amounts to a portion of the basic retirement pension which the deceased member was drawing or would have been eligible for.

1. Eligibility requirements

2. Amount

The survivor's pension from the basic scheme amounts to 54% of the entitlements which the deceased spouse had or would have been awarded. In 2022, it is capped at €925.56 per month. The minimum amount if €294.23 when the deceased had acquired at least 60 quarters (proportionally reduced in case of a shorter length of contribution).

A flat increase for dependent children (maximum of €99.80 per child) may be paid of the person in question does not receive a personal pension. A child-related top-up (10% of the total amount of the survivor's pension) is awarded to those who have had or raised at least 3 children.

On the basis of a means-test, the survivor's pension can be paid alongside:

B. The survivor's pension from the supplementary scheme (RCI)

The eligibility requirements are the same as for the survivor's pension from the basic scheme, but the income cap is different: under the supplementary scheme, the surviving spouse's income must not exceed €82,272 per year (or €6,856 per month).

The survivor's pension from the supplementary scheme amounts to 60% of the entitlement which the deceased spouse had or would have been awarded.

C. The death payment ("Capital décès")

The death payment ("capital décès") guarantees payment of a single lump-sum benefit to the deceased member's beneficiaries. This amount is tax-free.

1. Eligibility requirements

The employed or retired member's death benefit is paid as a matter of first priority to beneficiaries who were actually, fully and permanently financially dependent on the member at the time of his/her death.

The “dependent” (priority beneficiary) must apply for the death payment ("capital décès") within two months of the member's death. Past this deadline, if they apply within 2 years of the member's death, it can be paid to the member's spouse or dependent children, or to his/her ascendants if there is no spouse or children.

The member must be up to date with all contributions. If he/she was retired, he/she must have acquired at least 80 quarters as a self-employed worker. See all eligibility requirements applicable to each situation.

2. Amounts

IX. The self-employed workers' benefit (business closures)

As of November 1st, 2019, self-employed workers who close their business due to court-ordered liquidation or administration proceedings can apply for the self-employed workers' benefit ("allocation des travailleurs indépendants" / ATI). This benefit is paid by the French unemployment agency "Pôle emploi" and requires the applicant to register as a jobseeker (registration must occur within 12 months of business closure). Before they close their business, the applicant must have been a self-employed worker with the same business for an uninterrupted period of at least 2 years and have generated at least 10,000 € per year on average over the previous two years. The applicant must also have personal income that is below the amount of France's active-solidarity income (RSA), be residing in France, not be drawing a full-rate retirement pension, be physically fit for paid employment and be actively searching for employment. Applicants who meet all of these requirements can draw a flat-rate benefit of €26.30 per day (or around €800 per month) for a period of 6 months (182 days). This benefit is liable to CSG, CRDS and income tax withholdings.

As of April 1st, 2022, the ATI may be awarded in the event of the closure of a business considered not economically viable (on specific criteria).

More information is available online from Unédic.


Urssaf guides

  • Self-employed workers
  • Regulated private-practice professions
  • “Auto-entrepreneur” status