Alongside the general scheme (salaried workers and self-employed workers) and the special schemes (specific to certain lines of work), the French social security system also has a separate scheme for salaried and self-employed non-salaried workers in agriculture.
The following information applies to salaried agricultural workers.
France's social protection system for the agricultural professions is run by the central agricultural social mutual fund (“caisse centrale de la mutualité sociale agricole”/ CCMSA) and by the local agricultural social mutual (MSA) funds.
France's Agricultural social mutual organization (MSA) operates with joint oversight from the ministry in charge of agriculture, the Ministry of the Economy, Finance and the Recovery, and the Ministry of Health.
MSA provides social coverage (health, family, pension, industrial accident, and occupational illness benefits) for all individuals with ties to agriculture and their beneficiaries: farmers, salaried workers (of farms, farming businesses, cooperatives, and professional agricultural organizations).
It collects both social security and unemployment insurance contributions and charges.
As France's second-largest social protection scheme, MSA is an institution with an elective setup that is representative of the entire population with ties to agriculture.
In addition to providing statutory social protection, MSA's health and social policy gives rise to solidarity, disability, and dependency-related programs.
MSA is also in charge of preventing on-the-job risks for the agricultural professions and providing occupational health care for agricultural salaried workers, farmers, and company managers.
The French social protection scheme for salaried workers in the agricultural professions covers :
For more information: Article L. 722-20 et seq of the French rural and maritime fishing Code
|Contributions||Basis||Employer's share||Employee's share||Maximum rate|
|Health, Maternity, Disability, Death||Total pay||Yearly pay < or = 2.5 times the French minimum wage (SMIC)||7 %||-||7%|
|Yearly pay > 2.5 times the French minimum wage (SMIC)||13 %||-||13 %|
|Old-age insurance||Total pay||1.9 %||0.4 %||2.3 %|
|Pay up to the ceiling||8.55 %||6.9 %||15.45 %|
|Pay||Contribution basis||Employer's share||Employee's share||Maximum rate|
|Pay ≤ 3.5 times France's annual minimum wage (“SMIC)||Total pay||3.45 %||-||3.45 %|
|Pay > 3.5 times France's annual minimum wage (“SMIC”)||Total pay||5.25 %||-||5.25 %|
The industrial accident rate can be either an overall group rate or an individual rate. It varies based on the risk category in which the farm or company has been placed. The group rate is set by ministerial decree.
For more information: Risk category-based group rate scale for 2019
|Contributions||Contribution basis||Employer's share||Employee's share||Total|
|General social contribution (“Contribution sociale généralisée”/ CSG)1||98.25% of pay up to 4 times the Social Security ceiling and 100% of pay beyond that amount||-||9.2 %||9.2 %|
|Social debt repayment contribution (“Contribution au remboursement de la dette sociale”/ CRDS)1||98.25% of pay up to 4 times the Social Security ceiling* and 100% of pay beyond that amount||-||0.5 %||0.5 %|
|“Forfait social” (Corporate social contribution)||Certain pay components (excluding the bases below) that are exempted from social security contributions but liable to CSG or certain amounts appearing on a comprehensive list set forth by law||20 %||-||20 %|
|The following amounts paid into a company pension savings plan (“PERE”): amounts accrued through an incentive scheme; employer's matching payments; entitlements through a time-savings account (CET) or, if the employee does not have a time-savings account (CET), the monetary equivalent of up to 10 unused paid vacation days; compulsory payments by the employee or the employer (when the employee has compulsory membership in the company's pension-savings plan) → reduced rate when certain requirements are met 2||16 %||-||16 %|
||8 %||-||8 %|
|Amounts originating from incentive programs for companies with 50 to 250 staff members||Exempted|
|Employee savings payments (incentive and profit-sharing programs and employers' matching payments to an employee savings plan account) for companies not required to set up an employee profit-sharing program (= companies with fewer than 50 employees)||Exempted|
|Matching payments made by a company on the basis of payments made by an employee (or former employee who has retired or taken pre-retirement) to a company savings account (“PEE”) for the acquisition of shares or certificates of investment issued by the company or a company belonging to the same account merging consolidation perimeter||10 %||-||10 %|
|Autonomy Solidarity Contribution (“Contribution Solidarité Autonomie”/ CSA)||Total pay||0.3 %||-||0.3 %|
|Labor-management relations contribution (“Contribution dialogue social”)||Total pay||0.016 %||-||0.016 %|
1. CSG and CRDS are only payable by individuals who are tax residents of France (unless the Shumacker exception applies). For more information: The corporate social contribution (“forfait social”) and employee savings
2. The company pension savings plan must stipulate that, in order to increasingly reduce financial risks, savings must be allocated to the acquisition of shares in funds that are comprised of at least 10% (up from 7% previously) securities which are liable to be used in a share savings plan intended for use in financing small and medium-sized companies. See articles L. 137-16 and D. 137-1 of the French Social Security Code.
|FNAL contributions||Contribution basis||Employer's share||Employee's share||Total|
|Businesses involved in the lines of work listed in points 1 to 4 of article L. 722-1 of the French rural and maritime fishing code (“Code rural et de la pêche maritime”/ CRPM) and agricultural cooperatives||Pay capped at the social security ceiling||0.1 %||-||0.1 %|
|Other employers with fewer than 50 employees||Pay capped at the social security ceiling||0.1 %||-||0.1 %|
|Other employers with 50 employees and up||Total pay||0.5 %||-||0.5 %|
|Contributions||Contribution basis||Employer's share||Employee's share||Total|
|Unemployment insurance (AC)||Up to 4 times the social security ceiling (single bracket)||4.05%||-||4.05%|
|Wage guarantee insurance (AGS) (not including temporary workers employed by temping agencies)||Up to 4 times the social security ceiling||0.15%||-||0.15%|
|Wage guarantee insurance (AGS), for temporary workers employed by temping agencies||Up to 4 times the social security ceiling||0.03%||-||0.03%|
For more information: complete table of MSA contribution rates for 2022
All agricultural companies using electronic payroll (DSN or Déclaration Sociale Nominative) or a simplified agricultural employment contract (Tesa or Titre employ simplifié agricole) must pay their social security contributions and charges
on a monthly basis.
Employers with fewer than 11 workers can nevertheless opt to pay contributions and charges on a quarterly basis.
Those opting for the quarterly basis must submit a written request to their local MSA fund using the special form available for download on MSA's website.
An appointment with a general practitioner categorized as “conventionné secteur 1,” meaning that there is no surcharge, costs 25 euros.
While declaring a “médecin traitant” (primary care physician) is not mandatory, it determines reimbursement rates.
Members who declare a primary care physician (“médecin traitant”) are within the coordinated care pathway (“parcours de soins coordonnés”): their MSA fund will reimburse 70% of the basic rate, minus a 1-euro flat charge. The remainder is out-of-pocket but can be reimbursed by a supplementary health insurance fund.
Members who have not declared a primary-care physician (“médecin traitant”) are considered as being outside of the coordinated care pathway (“parcours de soins coordonnées”): their reimbursement is reduced to 30% of the basic rate, which comes to 7.50 €, minus the 1-euro flat charge.
Pharmaceuticals that are either fully or partially reimbursed by the MSA Fund must have been medically prescribed by a health care professional. Reimbursement is possible if both of the two following requirements are met at the same time:
Coverage of transportation expenses is always calculated based on the least expensive type of transportation that is compatible with the insured's state of health. In order to be reimbursed, the transportation must have been previously prescribed by a physician (except in emergency situations).
MSA must issue a prior approval for transportation under the following circumstances:
The physician must make a request for approval in addition to the prescription. These documents must be submitted to MSA's medical examiner's office (“service du contrôle medical”), which must notify the insured of its decision within two weeks of dispatch. If there is no reply, this is considered a prior approval.
Whatever the circumstances, the transportation company's invoice must be submitted along with the medical expense claim (“feuille de remboursement”).
The eligibility requirements for daily medical leave benefits are determined by the length of leave prescribed.
On the day medical leave is prescribed, the member must:
On the day medical leave is prescribed, the member must have:
Daily benefits are paid by MSA every 14 days once the 3-day waiting period has expired.
Rates are calculated based on an average of the insured's gross salary for the 3 months prior to going on medical leave, or for the 12 months prior to the leave period if their employment is seasonal or periodic, with a cap of 1.8 times the applicable monthly minimum wage or Smic (2,885.61 € as from 01/01/2022).
As from January 1st, 2022, daily medical leave benefits are capped at a maximum gross daily award of 47.43 € (i.e. 50% of the basic daily wage).
For more information: Medical leave for salaried agricultural workers
As with employees under the general regime, Statutory maternity leave has been set at a standard 16-week period. It generally begins 6 weeks prior to the expected date of delivery and continues for 10 weeks afterwards. However, it is possible to take a shorter period of leave, provided that it lasts for at least 8 weeks.
|Child(ren) expected||Prenatal leave||Postnatal leave||Total|
|1st or 2nd||6 weeks||10 weeks||16 weeks|
|3rd or more||8 weeks||18 weeks||26 weeks|
|Twins||12 weeks||22 weeks||34 weeks|
|Triplets or more||24 weeks||22 weeks||46 weeks|
To learn more: Special circumstances
To be eligible for daily maternity leave benefits, the mother-to-be must have been a member of the French social security system for at least ten months (all insurance schemes combined) and have completed a minimum period of salaried employment, i.e:
Once the mother-to-be has notified her MSA fund of her pregnancy, she must also inform her employer. The employer then submits the form entitled “Attestation de salaire pour le paiement des indemnités journalières” (Proof of salary for the payment of daily benefits) on the first day of the employee's leave, to trigger the payment of daily benefits.
While on maternity leave, the employee's employment contract is suspended. During that period, her MSA Fund will pay her daily benefits every 14 days in compensation for the loss of earnings resulting from being on leave.
The daily maternity benefit is calculated based on salaries drawn over the last 3 months prior to going on leave and capped at the amount of the applicable monthly social security ceiling (3,428 € as of January 1st 2022).
|Minimum||9.66 €/ day|
|Maximum||89.03 €/ day|
From July 1st, 2021, statutory paternity leave has been lengthened to 25 calendar days, or 32 calendar days for multiple births. Paternity leave can be split up into separate, shorter periods.
Fathers must take a portion of their total paternity leave immediately after their birth leave for a period of 7 consecutive days (3 days of birth leave followed by 4 days of paternity leave).
An additional 21-day period (extended to 28 days for multiple births) must be taken within the 6 months following the child's birth. It can be split up into 2 periods of at least 5 days.
The eligibility requirements for daily paternity leave benefits are the same as for maternity leave benefits. Rates are also equivalent.
As a general rule, only members with a recognized disability before the age of 62 are entitled to a disability pension.
An exception is made for surviving spouses who are not entitled to social security benefits in their own right but who are awarded a widow's or widower's disability pension if their capacity for work is assessed as diminished by a factor of at least 2/3 before the age of 55.
There are 3 categories of disability pension:
Disability pension claimants are entitled to health insurance benefits for an unlimited period of time, and with no out-of-pocket expenses (except for pharmaceuticals with 35% and 15% reimbursement rates).
|Disability pension rates (as of April 1st, 2022*)||Monthly amount|
|Minimum amount||297.20 €|
|Maximum amount for category 1||1,028.40 €|
|Maximum amount for category 2||1,714 €|
|Maximum amount for category 3||2,860.68 €|
*Amounts identical to those applied to employees under the general regime
The additional disability allowance (“allocation supplémentaire d'invalidité”/ ASI) is a benefit that is paid as a supplement to a life-long old-age or disability benefit until the claimant is old enough to qualify for the elderly solidarity allowance (“Allocation de solidarité aux personnes âgées” / Aspa).
It ceases to be paid when the individual reaches the legal retirement age.
ASI eligibility requirements:
The amount of additional disability allowance varies according to income. In practice, the amount of ASI is equal to the ceiling minus the income amount.
ASI benefits can no longer be collected back from the claimant's estate when s/he dies for deaths occurring on or after January 1st, 2020.
Entitlements for the deceased's beneficiary continue after the spouse's death.
If certain requirements are met, the surviving spouse may be eligible for a salaried employees' death payment. In order to qualify, an application must be submitted to the member's MSA fund.
The death payment is paid as a flat-rate lump sum. It amounts to 3,539 € as of April 1st, 2022.
Agricultural salaried workers, apprentices, students, and interns are covered for work-related accidents or illnesses, if certain requirements are met.
The occupational illnesses that are recognized and covered by MSA appear on specific occupational illness tables. Each of these tables, which are published by decree, specifies the medical, technical, and administrative requirements that must be met: precise name of the illness, timeframe for coverage, length of exposure to risk where applicable, and list of work to which the illness is attributable.
All industrial accident/ occupational illness-related care is covered by the member's MSA fund in accordance with the basic reimbursement rates.
The following care is covered at a rate of 100% of the amount approved by the French health insurance system:
The following are covered at a rate of 150% of the amount approved by the French health insurance system:
Any surcharges or supplements beyond the approved amount, or beyond 150% of the approved amount for prosthetic devices and dental prosthetics, are not covered by MSA
Daily benefits are paid every two weeks, with no waiting period, up to the date of stabilization or full recovery:
Retirement pensions for salaried employees in agriculture are composed of a basic retirement pension and a supplementary retirement pension which are accrued on a pay-as-you-go basis.
For more information: Retirement for salaried workers in agriculture
Statutory retirement age has been set at 62 for individuals who were born on or after January 1st, 1955.
Members who have reached age 62 but have not accrued all of their quarters will be awarded a pension at a permanently reduced rate, unless they decide to wait until the “age of full-rate entitlement.”
|Birth year||Statutory retirement age||Age of full-rate entitlement|
|Prior to July 1st, 1951||60||65|
|From July 1st, 1951||60 years 4 months||65 years 4 months|
|From January 1st, 1952||60 years 9 months||65 years 9 months|
|From January 1st, 1953||61 years 2 months||66 years 2 months|
|From January 1st, 1954||61 years 7 months||66 years 7 months|
|From January 1st, 1955||62||67|
An applicant's length of insurance is used to determine whether they are entitled to a pension with no rate reduction. The number of quarters accrued under all schemes combined cannot exceed 4 per calendar year. Only one quarter is required for entitlement to a pension from the scheme for salaried workers in agriculture.
Length of insurance takes account of the following:
|Year of birth||Length of insurance|
A retirement pension is calculated at the full rate, meaning at the maximum rate of 50%, if the member has met the requirements in terms of both length of insurance and equivalent periods.
If the claimant has not accrued the required length of insurance their retirement pension will still be calculated at the full rate:
Individuals born on or after January 1st, 1955, are automatically entitled to the full rate at age 67.
Pensions are calculated based on 3 components:
Pensions are calculated as follows:
Yearly basic retirement pension amount = Average yearly earnings x Rate x (Length of insurance under the agricultural salaried workers' scheme/ Maximum length of insurance taken into account based on your year of birth)
When certain requirements are met, periods of employment abroad in a country that has signed a Social Security agreement with France can be taken into account when determining the member's retirement pension payment rate.
Under French legislation alone, periods of employment abroad accrued prior to April 1st, 1983, for which buyback contributions can or could have been made, are taken into account as equivalent periods when determining the member's pension payment rate from statutory retirement age (article R. 351-4 of the French Social Security code).
France's pension reform of January 20, 2014, instituted the single pension claim system (LURA) for individuals born on or after January 1st, 1953, who have belonged to at least 2 of the following so-called “aligned” schemes:
Through LURA, these individuals, formerly termed “multiple-pension claimants,” are only required to submit a single pension claim and only draw a single pension (rather than several as before).
An individual can submit a pension claim to any of the pension funds to which they have belonged. The funds then work together to compile the information needed to process the claim and calculate the pension.
In general, the competent scheme to calculate and pay the applicant's pension is the last one to which they belonged. The claimant's pension is then calculated and awarded by the competent scheme pursuant to its own rules and policies.
A parent can be awarded a length of insurance increase of up to 8 quarters per child:
For children born after January 1st, 2010, additional quarters for adoption and child-rearing can be shared between the parents. Indeed, the parents can determine who accrues the additional quarters or how the additional quarters will be shared within a 6-month period following the 4th anniversary of the child's birth or adoption.
Up to eight additional quarters may be credited to persons bringing up a child with a severe disability who qualifies for :
- the special education disabled child's allowance (AEEH) and its supplement,
- the special education disabled child's allowance (AEEH) and the disability compensation benefit (PCH).
An individual can reach full-rate retirement pension age (between 65 and 67 as determined by birth year) but not have accrued the required length of insurance for entitlement to a full pension (all basic schemes combined). They can increase their length of insurance by delaying retirement beyond that age (whether or not they continue to work). In this case, their length of insurance will be increased by 2.5% for each quarter retirement is delayed.
Salaried workers in agriculture who began working at an early age may be eligible for the early retirement program for members with a long career, which entitles them to a basic pension with no rate reduction.
Members who began working before age 16, 17, or 20 may be eligible to retire before or from age 60 if both of the following requirements are met:
All periods on which contributions were paid into a French scheme are taken into account. Certain equivalent quarters are treated as if contributions were paid. This means that the following are taken into account:
An agricultural salaried worker with a permanent disability can retire with a full-rate pension from age 55 if they meet all of the following 3 requirements:
Disability assessments cover the entire calendar year. When a member is assessed as having a disability at any time over the course of the calendar year, all quarters of that year are considered as having been accrued while disabled.
A salaried worker in agriculture can apply for early retirement on the basis of permanent incapacity for work beginning at age 60. Their pension will be calculated with no rate reduction assuming that they have a minimum incapacity-for-work rating with a work-related origin that was caused by either an occupational illness or an industrial accident.
To be eligible, members must be drawing an industrial accident/ occupational illness pension on the basis of permanent incapacity for work with a severity rating of: at least 20%.
Early-retirement eligibility requirements are determined by the severity of the claimant's incapacity for work:
Early retirement pensions awarded on the basis of permanent incapacity for work are calculated with no rate reduction, regardless of the member's length of insurance.
Salaried workers exposed to certain industrial risks which are liable to have a life-long impact on health accrue points to a job risk prevention account (“compte professionnel de prévention”/ C2P). These points, which are awarded on the basis of the employer's declarations, can allow the holder to undertake professional training, fund a move towards half-time work without losing their salary, to increase the duration of insurance and be used towards early retirement.
6 exposure factors are currently taken into account:
Statutory retirement age is lowered on the basis of the number of additional length-of-insurance quarters accrued, which is capped at 8:
With Aspa, individuals with little money for their retirement can draw a minimum income if they meet the eligibility requirements.
To qualify for Aspa, a member must:
|Monthly amount||Yearly amount|
|For a single person||916.78 €||11,001.44 €|
|For a couple (married couple, or de facto or civil union partners)||1,423.31 €||17,079.77 €|
The Aspa award will be equal to the difference between the maximum amount and the single person's or couple's income.
An individual can apply for a survivor's retirement pension if his/her spouse or ex-spouse has died (or have been reported missing for more than a year) and was either drawing or would have been eligible for a salaried worker's retirement pension from the agricultural scheme.
De facto or civil union (“PACS”) partners are not entitled to a survivor's retirement pension.
To be eligible for a survivor's retirement pension, the applicant must meet the following requirements:
The widow(er)'s allowance (“allocation de veuvage”) is awarded as temporary financial support for surviving spouses who do not meet the age requirement for a survivor's retirement pension (i.e. who are under age 55). The widow(er)'s allowance is awarded only when directly applied for by the survivor.
If the deceased was a member of the scheme for salaried workers in agriculture, the application for a widow(er)'s allowance must be submitted to the MSA fund in charge of paying old-age entitlements.
The deceased spouse must have been drawing:
The surviving spouse must meet the following requirements:
The widow(er)'s allowance comes to 632.17 € per month as from January 1st, 2022. It can be paid at a reduced rate on the basis of the surviving spouse's income.
The allowance is paid every month for a period of 2 years following the spouse's death, insofar as the eligibility requirements continue to be met. If an application is submitted within the 12 months following the spouse's death, the allowance's effective date is the 1st day of the month of the death. Otherwise, the effective date is the 1st day of the month of the application.
MSA pays the same benefits based on the same requirements as the general social security scheme's Family Benefits Funds (“Caisses d'Allocations Familiales”/ CAF). Most of these benefits are means-tested and can be paid at various rates based on the claimant's income.
MSA pays a family allowance to households with 2 or more children under the age of 20. Rates are based on household makeup and income.
The household income taken into account is the same that is used by the MSA Fund to calculate other family benefits. This income is used to determine the income bracket to which the household belongs in order to calculate their family benefit entitlement.
The family allowance is paid automatically from the second child's birth or arrival in the household, provided that the family has declared the child's birth or adoption to their MSA Fund. They are paid automatically from the month following the child's birth or arrival
This supplement is paid to help with child maintenance costs. It is a means-tested benefit that is paid to households with 3 or more dependent children, if the 3rd child is at least 3 years old.
ASF is paid to a single or foster parent raising one or more child(ren) who are totally or partially deprived of family support. ASF can be paid on top of a small child support award. This allowance is not means-tested.
Paje was created to make life easier for new parents. It consists of several types of award from before the child arrives and going up to his/her 6th birthday:
This allowance provides financial aid if on parent temporarily stops working to care for a child with a serious illness, accidental injury, or disability. It is not means-tested.
A means-tested supplement for expenses (“complément pour frais”) can also be awarded if the family has had medical expenses in connection with the child's health.
This benefit helps families pay for back-to-school expenses for children ages 6 to 18. To draw this benefit for children ages 16 and up, families must submit a declaration of each child's school or apprenticeship enrolment to their MSA fund.
This allowance provides financial assistance with educational and health care expenses for dependent children with disabilities under the age of 20. It is not means-tested.
This allowance is awarded as minimum income for people with disabilities on a low income or who have no other source of revenue. Claimants are required to declare their income each quarter in order to keep drawing AAH.
Employees under the agricultural regime are entitled to common law unemployment benefit.
MSA offers programs to deal with issues specific to agriculture and the rural environment. These include: